Portal Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment
S. Buob, A.N. Johnston, and
J Vet Intern Med
Portal hypertension (PH) is the result of increased vascular resistance in the portal circulation, increased portal venous blood ﬂow, or both. In veterinary medicine, where portal pressure is seldom measured directly, the diagnosis of PH often is inferred from identiﬁcation of associated complications including multiple acquired portosystemic shunts, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Likewise, treatment of PH primarily is aimed at controlling these complications. The goal of this review is to provide an update on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PH. The review draws from information in the veterinary hepatology literature, reviews, and consensus statements in human hepatology and the literature on experimental models of PH.